Vaults of Memory: The Roman Jewish Catacombs and Their Context in the Ancient Mediterranean World (Table of Contents)

Table of Contents

Prologue - Odyssey Sotterranea: A Search for Shared Universal Symbols

Preface - (includes information about the International Catacomb Society and biographical information about Estelle Brettman)

Part I. Archaeological and Historical Background

Introduction

Chapter 1. Exploration

The Catacombs since the Cessation of Burials
Cult of Christian Martyrs
Itineraries
Early Explorers of the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries
Accademia Romana and Pomponius Letus
Onofrius Panvinius
St. Filippo Neri and the Cenacolo Filippino
Cesare Baronius
Discovery of the Catacomb on the via Salaria Nuova
Alfonso Chacon, Philip De Winghe, and Johanne L’Hereux
Antonio Bosio, “Columbus of the Roma Sotterranea”
Renewed Interest in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries
Giovanni Battista de Rossi
Founding of the Pontifical Commission for Sacred Archaeology
Orazio Marucchi
Father Raffaele Garrucci, SJ
Nikolaus Muller
Recent Investigations
Father Antonio Ferrua, SJ
Father Umberto M. Fasola, B

Chapter 2. Burials in Ancient Rome

Burials in Ancient Rome
Jewish and Christian Burials
Antecedents
Dating
Early Burial Arrangements
Why “Catacombs?”
Development of the Catacombs
Jewish Catacombs of Rome
Extent and Location of the Catacombs
Builders of the Catacombs
Structure of the Catacombs - Galleries - Illumination and Ventilation - Cubicula - Burial Types - Arcosolia - Loculi - Loculi Sealings - Arcosolia/Loculi Variants - Kokhim - Formae - Sepolcri a Fossa - Masonry Tombs - Sarcophagi and Other Receptacles - Ossilegium
The Evolution of Catacombs
The Catacomb of Domitilla
The Vigna Randanini Catacomb
The Via Appia Pignatelli Catacomb
The Villa Torlonia Catacombs
Lower Catacomb
Upper Catacomb
General Characteristics of the Torlonia Catacombs

Chapter 3. History of the Jews in Ancient Rome

The Jews in Italy
The Position of Jews in Rome
Jews and Early Christians
Jews and Christians in the City of Rome
Archives of History: Inscriptions - Names - Origins of the Deceased - The Synagogue and Early Church in Rome -&nbsp
Officers of the Synagogue - Archisynagogos - Gerousiarch/Gerousia - Archigerousiarch - Archon - Archon Alti Ordinis - Archon Pases times - Mellarchon - Exarchon - Pater Synagogae/Mater Synagogae - Phrontistes - Prostates - Grammateus - Priests - Hyperetes
Officers in the Early Christian Church
The Place of Women in the Congregational Hierarchy
Jewish Congregations in Rome - Augustensians - Calcarensians - Campesians - Elaeans - Hebrews - Secenians - Siburesians - Tripolitans - Vernaclesians - Volumnesians
A Synagogue at Ostia Antica
Professions Recorded in Catacomb Inscriptions

Chapter 4. Art

Roman Art
Early Jewish and Early Christian Art
Materials and Methods
Artists, Patrons, Craftspeople, and Workshops
Painting
Pompeian Painting Styles
Via Latina
Sculpture
Sarcophagi
Gold Glass
Other Finds from Monteverde

Part II. Religious Imagery and Iconography
Chapter 5. Imagery and Iconography of the Catacombs

Cycles of Birth and Death
Rites and Rituals
Funerary Meals
Tableware
Vessels
Food and Drink
Bread
Wine
Fish
Sedentary and Reclining Comfort
Toasts to the Deceased
Offerings and Sacramental Ceremonies
Libations
Sacrifice
Blood
Ointments, Oils, and Spices
Burning of Incense
Sanguinary Contests and Games
Combat
Hunting
Mourning
Remembrance of the Deceased
Flora
Roses/Rosettes
Vines/Grapes
Pomegranate
Olive
Palm
Grain
“Tree of Life”
Manna from Heaven
Fauna
Animal Companions
Birds
Dove
Peacock
Eagle
Waterfowl
Soul-bird
Beasts
Fish
Lion
Ram/Sheep
Ox/Bovine/Bucranium
Bull
Fantastic Creatures
Griffin
Hippocamp
Human/Animal Composite
Sphinx
Fertility and the Seasons
Immortality and the Afterlife
Water: Purification, Rebirth, and Salvation
Vessels
Purification and Cleansing
Baptism
River, Sea, and Flood
“Water of Life”
Marine Transports
Dolphin
Hippocamp
Ship, Harbor, and Lighthouse
Celestial Transports
Chariot
Peacock
Sun
Moon
Psychopomps
Sleep
Coemeterium
Cubiculum
Peace/Shalom
The Eternal House
Entrances and Exits
The Tomb
The World to Come
The Hereafter
Judgement
Paradise Gained
Heavenly Pasture
The Good Shepherd
Victory and Coronation
The “Tree of Eternal Life”
Crowns and Wreaths
Cosmic Symbols
The Cross
Crux Gammata
Crux Commissa
Crux Ansata
Biblical Scenes
Hebrew Bible
New Testament
Jewish Symbols
Lulav
Ethrog
Shofar
Menorah
Torah Shrine
The Temple
Shared Symbols
“Inhabitants” of the Catacombs
Gods and Goddesses
The Orant
Scrolls, Saints, and Scholars
The Need for Preservation and Conservation

Glossary
Comprehensive Bibliography of the Catacombs and Related Studies
Index
Appendices
Inscriptions